Eczema refers to an inflammation of the skin, usually causing itching and sometimes accompanied by crusting, scaling or blisters. A type of eczema often made worse by allergen exposure is termed “atopic dermatitis”.
Urticaria is a skin condition, common known as hives, characterized by the development of itchy, raised white lumps surrounded by an area of red inflammation.
Contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin or a rash caused by contact with various substances of a chemical, animal or vegetable nature. The reaction may be an immunologic response or a direct toxic effect of the substance. Among the more common causes of a contact dermatitis reaction are detergents left on washed clothes, nickel (in watch straps, bracelets and necklaces, and the fastenings on underclothes), chemicals in rubber gloves and condoms, certain cosmetics, plants such as poison ivy, and topical medications
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Skin prick testing can be used to determine whether the cause of a specific skin reaction are due to immediate-type hypersensitivity from common food or environmental allergens.
Patch testing typically evaluates delayed-type hypersensitivity and whether a reaction on the skin is due to a contact allergy from a metal, cosmetic, fabric etc or whether it is simply due to an irritant effect.